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Author Guidelines


1. General principles

2. Publication charge

3. Criteria for authorship

4. Other contributors

5. Competing interests

6. Reporting guidelines for specific study designs

7. Manuscript preparation

8. Elements of the article

9. Units of measurement

10. Abbreviations and symbols

11. Cover picture


1. General principles

Open Medicine's guidelines for authorship are based on the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) Uniform Requirements for Submission of Manuscripts to Biomedical Journals. Open Medicine endorses the philosophy that the Equator Network has adopted for reporting health research. Prospective authors who wish to submit to Open Medicine should consult the Equator Network for the appropriate reporting guidelines and follow the recommendations provided for the study design of their submission (see also section 6, Reporting guidelines).

Our section policies provide additional background information about the types of articles we publish, word count information, etc. As electronic publishing creates opportunities for adding detail, layering information, cross-linking or extracting portions of articles and adding background material (e.g., research surveys, databases), authors are asked to work closely with our editors to use these features to their advantage (

2. Publication charge

Open Medicine will levy a public ation charge for accepted articles. The fee is C$2500 for research and review articles and C$1200 for commentary and analysis articles that meet our author guidelines in format and word count. The charge covers most of the copyediting costs as well as the production and layout costs required to ensure the article meets National Library of Medicine standards; the remaining costs are met by our editorial team of volunteers. Partial or complete fee waivers are available to authors with little or no means to pay. Authors requiring a partial or complete fee waiver must provide an explanation for this when their article is accepted. Since publication charges apply only after an article is accepted, the fees do not influence our editorial decisions.

3. Criteria for authorship

An author is generally considered to be someone who has made substantive intellectual contributions to a study. Each author must meet the 4 authorship criteria of the ICMJE:

"Authorship requires:

  • Substantial contributions to: the conception or design of the work; or the acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data for the work; AND
  • Drafting the work or revising it critically for important intellectual content; AND
  • Final approval of the version to be published; AND
  • Agreement to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved."

Other points to consider:

Acquisition of funding, collection of data, or general supervision of the research group, by themselves, do not justify authorship.

All persons designated as authors should qualify for authorship, and all those who qualify should be listed.

The order of authorship on the byline is a joint decision of the co-authors. Authors should be prepared to explain the order in which authors are listed.

When a large, multi-centre group has conducted the work, the group should identify the individuals who accept direct responsibility for the manuscript. These individuals must meet all 3 criteria for authorship. All authors will need to complete a Competing Interest statement regarding potential conflict of interests related to author commitments and project support.

When submitting a manuscript authored by a group, the corresponding author should clearly indicate the preferred citation and clearly identify all of the individual authors as well as the group name. We will list other members of the group in the Acknowledgements. The National Library of Medicine indexes the group name and the names of individuals the group has identified as being directly responsible for the manuscript.

Ghost authorship occurs when someone makes a significant contribution to a manuscript without due acknowledgement of their role. Guest authorship occurs when an individual is named as an author of a manuscript when they do not meet authorship criteria. Open Medicine considers that both ghost and guest authorship are breaches of publication ethics. (See Editorial Policies. 14. Ghost and guest authorship policy.)

To support transparent authorship reporting authors must fulfil the following requirements.

1. Authors must provide a contributor statement that describes the specific contribution of each author to the manuscript and shows how each author meets the 3 authorship criteria of the ICMJE.

"Alex Twinning participated in finalizing the study methodology, managed the quantitative component and was the principal writer of the manuscript. Gerry Masters conceived the project, oversaw the data collection and analysis and participated in all phases of the writing. Grant Smith helped implement the study, worked on finalizing the methodology and contributed to the writing and editing of the manuscript. Julie Matthews supervised the data collection, described the qualitative methods used in the study and reviewed all manuscript drafts. Elizabeth Summers conducted the data analysis and participated in editing and reviewing manuscript drafts. Sharon Levy conceived the study and oversaw its implementation and participated in the writing of the manuscript. Sally Little helped guide the analysis and participated in the writing. All of the authors approved the final version of the manuscript."

The contributor statement should also identify who wrote the first draft of the manuscript (and for research studies, who wrote the protocol and did the statistical analyses). If the people named are not authors, the Journal editors will contact them to confirm their contribution. The author who is acting as guarantor, who is responsible for the integrity of the work as a whole from inception to published article, should be named.

2. Contributors who do not meet the criteria for authorship should be named in an Acknowledgements section with their contribution clearly described. Please see 4. Other contributors below.

3. Authors should retain copies of drafts to facilitate investigations of possible misconduct.

3.2 Professional medical writers

To support the transparent disclosure of the contributions of professional medical writers, authors are asked to observe the following:

1. Any and all assistance from professional medical writers must in every case be appropriately acknowledged and described and their funding source named.

2. Professional medical writers whose contribution to a manuscript qualifies them as an author according to the ICMJE criteria for authorship must be listed as authors, with their affiliations and competing interests provided and their funding source named.

3. Professional medical writers whose contribution to a manuscript does not qualify them as an author according to the ICMJE criteria should be named in the Acknowledgements section, with their contribution clearly described and their funding source named. Authors are requested to contact the Open Medicine editors to obtain clarification as to the appropriate place in the manuscript to acknowledge and describe the contribution of a medical writer.

The following checklist is for authors who have used medical writers and is provided to aid the appropriate disclosure of professional writing assistance.

1. (a) Did the medical writer meet the three ICMJE criteria for authorship?

(b) If not, has the writer been identified in the Acknowledgments?

2. Has the source of funding for the medical writer’s services been identified in the Acknowledgements?

3. Did the author(s) make the final decision on the main points to be communicated in the manuscript, particularly in the interpretation section?

4. Did the author(s) make the final decision on the primary and secondary outcomes and relevant data to be reported in the manuscript?

5. If requested by the Journal, can the medical writer provide evidence that the manuscript was prepared in accordance with international guidelines for ethical medical writing (e.g., Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical JournalsGood Publication Practice for Pharmaceutical Companies;position statements from the European or American medical writers associations; or the International Society for Medical Publication Professionals)  

The checklist is adapted from Gøtzsche PC, Kassirer JP, Woolley KL, Wager E, Jacobs A, Gertel A, et al. What should be done to tackle ghostwriting in the medical literature? PLoS Med 2009;6(2):e1000023.

4. Other contributors

All contributors who do not meet the criteria for authorship should be listed in an Acknowledgements section. Examples are those who provide purely administrative or technical assistance, or a department chair who provided only general support. Financial and material support should also be acknowledged. Vague statements in the Acknowledgements section, such as “We thank XX” (without specifying for what) or “XX provided editorial assistance”, will not be accepted. 

Please see 3.2 Professional medical writers for guidelines for appropriate disclosure of the contributions of medical writers.

Because readers may infer their endorsement of the data and conclusions, all persons whose contribution goes beyond administrative assistance must give written permission to be acknowledged. This permission must be submitted upon acceptance of the article for publication.

5. Competing interests

Authors should read the detailed Competing Interest policy prior to submitting their manuscripts and provide all relevant information at the time of submission.

6. Reporting guidelines for specific study designs

To ensure all important information is included, submitted articles should follow the guidelines for the specific research design (see below). Relevant checklists should be submitted with the article.

6.1 Clinical trials

Reports of randomized controlled trials must conform to the revised CONSORT guidelines and should be submitted with their protocols. Cluster-randomized trials and trials reporting harms should be reported according to the CONSORT statement extension to cluster-randomized controlled trials and the CONSORT statement extension to harms of studies.

6.2 Diagnostic accuracy studies

Studies of diagnostic accuracy should be reported according to STARD guidelines.

6.3 Systematic or narrative reviews

Systematic reviews and meta-analyses should be written according to the PRISMA statement and should be approximately 3000 words with 80 references or fewer. This replaces the QUOROM statement for reporting. Authors should confirm their eligibility to write reviews prior to submission. (See Competing Interest policy) Reviews that are under consideration for publication with the Cochrane Collaboration or that have already been published by Cochrane are not eligible for publication in Open Medicine.

6.4 Observation studies

Observational studies should be reported according to the STROBE guidelines or MOOSE guidelines if the paper is a meta-analysis of observational studies. The word count should be approximately 3000 words with 80 references or fewer.

7. Manuscript preparation

Please number the pages of your submission to facilitate the work of the peer reviewers. Please submit the article as a Word DOC (e.g., with a .doc extension) file. We are currently unable to accept Word 2007 DOCX files. If you created your manuscript using Word 2007, please save the document as a Word 2003 file before submission. We also welcome documents in Open Office formats.

When submitting your paper online, you will be required to submit the following information:

7.1 Title of the article

Short titles are easier to read than long ones. Titles that are too short may, however, lack important information, such as study design (particularly important in identifying randomized controlled trials). Authors should include all information that will make electronic retrieval of their article accurate.

7.2 Author names and affiliations

We would like to present authors and affiliations in terms of actual roles – e.g., Dr. Brilliant is an associate professor of really amazing stuff in the Department of Advanced Imagination at the University of Erudition, Leamington, Ont. – rather than simply listing institutions. Please include the following details in this format. Details should include all author names, e-mail addresses and corresponding department(s) and institution(s) to which the work should be attributed.

The name, mailing address, telephone and fax numbers, and e-mail address of the author responsible for correspondence about the manuscript (this author may or may not be the guarantor for the integrity of the study as a whole) will also be required and should indicate clearly whether their e-mail address is to be published. (See also section 2, Criteria for authorship.)

7.3 Responsibility for manuscript references

The guarantor is required to take responsibility for the appropriateness and accuracy of the manuscript's reference list. Improper citation can promote incorrect information, ignore alternative evidence and impair scientific progress. See Fergusson (2009) for a complete discussion of the problems associated with poor referencing. [Fergusson D, Inappropriate referencing in research, BMJ 2009;339:b2049]

7.4 Source(s) of support in the form of grants, equipment, drugs, or all of these.

These should also be included in the body of the text in the Methods.

7.5 Word count

A word count for the text only (excluding the Abstract, Acknowledgements, figure legends and references) allows editors and reviewers to assess whether the information contained in the paper warrants the amount of space devoted to it, and whether the submitted manuscript fits within the Journal's word limits. A separate word count for the Abstract is also required. Please include these in your cover letter.

7.6 Figures and tables

Please include the number of figures and tables in your cover letter to ensure editorial staff and reviewers can check that all figures and tables accompanying a manuscript have been included. Please supply figures in a format that can be edited; that is, we need to be able to regularize and edit spelling, the font, and size of labels and legends, and the content and presentation of captions. Illustrations should be submitted in the highest quality possible. For example, if the original images were created using Inkscape, or another vector editor such as Adobe Illustrator, submit the SVG or AI file. Please include your data spreadsheet, preferably in Microsoft Excel, with figures prepared as charts and graphs. If you are submitting a figure as a picture file (e.g., png, jpg, tif), do NOT include the caption as part of the figure; instead, provide the captions with the Word file of the main text of your article. For forest plots, please submit the tabular material as a word processing document table (e.g., a table created in Word 2003), and the plot itself as a separate file.

Further questions about submitting figures and illustrations can be sent to

8. Elements of the article

8.1 Abstract:

The abstract should have the following sections: Background (context or background for the study), including the study's purpose(s); Methods; Results (including the main findings and giving specific effect sizes and their statistical significance, if possible); and Interpretation. It should emphasize new and important aspects of the study or observations. The abstract should not exceed 300 words; if space is short, report only the primary outcomes. Abstracts should reflect the content and findings of the article accurately. Papers for randomized controlled trials should ensure that basic criteria of the CONSORT statement are included in the abstract (see 6.1 Clinical trials).

8.2 Introduction:

The introduction provides a context or background for the study (i.e., the nature of the problem and its significance). It should also state the specific purpose or research objective of, or hypothesis tested by, the study or observation; the research objective is often more sharply focused when stated as a question. Both the main and secondary objectives should be made clear, and any pre-specified subgroup analyses should be described. Give only strictly pertinent references and do not include data or conclusions from the work being reported.

8.3 Methods:

The Methods section should include only information that was available at the time the plan or protocol for the study was written; all information obtained during the conduct of the study belongs in the Results section. Authors should avoid jargon. Authors are encouraged to submit surveys, questionnaires or protocols used in their study for publication as part of their methods. We also encourage authors to publish original data/databases to encourage secondary analysis and ongoing debate. The Journal will provide assistance to authors who wish to make their original data available to others.

8.3.1 Selection and description of participants:

Describe your selection of the observational or experimental participants (patients or laboratory animals, including controls) clearly, including eligibility and exclusion criteria and a description of the source population. Because the relevance of such variables as age and sex to the object of research is not always clear, authors should explain their use when they are included in a study report; for example, authors should explain why only subjects of certain ages were included or why women were excluded. The guiding principle should be clarity about how and why a study was done in a particular way. When authors use variables such as race or ethnicity, they should define how they measured the variables and justify their relevance. Papers reporting patient data are required to provide signed informed consent from the patient. This should also be indicated in the published article (see Editorial Policies 4. Privacy and confidentiality).

8.3.2 Technical information:

Identify the methods, apparatus (give the manufacturer's name, city and state or province in parentheses), and procedures in sufficient detail to allow other workers to reproduce the results. Give references to established methods, including statistical methods (see 8.3.3 Statistics); provide references and brief descriptions for methods that have been published but are not well known; describe new or substantially modified methods, give reasons for using them, and evaluate their limitations. Identify precisely all drugs and chemicals used, including generic name(s), dose(s), and route(s) of administration. Authors submitting review manuscripts should include a section describing the methods used for locating, selecting, extracting and synthesizing data. These methods should also be summarized in the abstract.

8.3.3 Statistics:

Describe statistical methods with enough detail to enable a knowledgeable reader with access to the original data to verify the reported results. When possible, quantify findings and present them with appropriate indicators of measurement error or uncertainty (such as confidence intervals). Avoid relying solely on statistical hypothesis testing, such as the use of p values, which fails to convey important information about effect size. References for the design of the study and statistical methods should be to standard works when possible (with pages stated). Define statistical terms, abbreviations and most symbols. Specify the computer software used.

8.3.4 Sponsor role:

Authors should describe the role of the study sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the report for publication. If the supporting source had no such involvement, the authors should state this. Authors should also state if the persons directly responsible for their work were able to access and independently analyze their data, and prepare and publish their manuscript without sponsor interference. Authors of studies funded by an agency with a proprietary or financial interest in the outcome should include and sign the following statement: "I had full access to all of the data in this study and I take complete responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis" (see Competing Interest policy).

8.3.5 Ethics approval:

Ethics approval (if relevant) from the institutional review board or ethics committee should be documented in the Methods.

8.4 Results:

Present your results in logical sequence in the text, tables and illustrations, giving the main or most important findings first. Do not repeat in the text all the data in the tables or illustrations; emphasize or summarize only important observations. Extra or supplementary materials and technical detail can be placed in a linked appendix where it will be accessible but will not interrupt the flow of the text. When data are summarized in the Results section, give numeric results not only as derivatives (for example, percentages) but also as the absolute numbers from which the derivatives were calculated, and specify the statistical methods used to analyze them. Restrict tables and figures to those needed to explain the argument of the paper and to assess its support. Do not duplicate data in graphs and tables. Avoid non-technical uses of technical terms in statistics, such as "random" (which implies a randomizing device), "normal," "significant," "correlations," and "sample." Where scientifically appropriate, analyses of the data by variables such as age and sex should be included.

8.5 Interpretation:

Highlight the key findings and then emphasize the new and important aspects of the study and the conclusions that follow from them (one paragraph). Do not repeat in detail data or other material given in the Introduction or the Results section. In the next paragraph, explore the possible mechanisms or explanations for these findings, compare and contrast the results with other relevant studies, thereby putting the results into a broader context (one to two paragraphs). Next, state the limitations of the study (one paragraph), and in the concluding paragraph explore the implications of the findings for future research and for clinical practice. Link the conclusions with the goals of the study but avoid unqualified statements and conclusions not adequately supported by the data. In particular, authors should avoid making statements on economic benefits and costs unless their manuscript includes the appropriate economic data and analyses. Avoid claims of precedence and allusions to work that has not been completed. State new hypotheses when warranted, but clearly label them as such.

8.6 References

8.6.1 General considerations related to references:

Although references to review articles can be an efficient way of guiding readers to a body of literature, review articles do not always reflect original work accurately. Readers should therefore be provided with direct references to original research sources whenever possible. Small numbers of references to key original papers will often serve as well as more exhaustive lists. Avoid using abstracts as references. References to papers accepted but not yet published should be designated as "in press" or "forthcoming"; authors should obtain written permission to cite such papers as well as verification that they have been accepted for publication. Information from manuscripts submitted but not accepted should be cited in the text as "unpublished observations" with written permission from the source. Avoid citing a "personal communication" unless it provides essential information not available from a public source, in which case the name of the person and date of communication should be cited in parentheses in the text. For scientific articles, authors should obtain written permission to publish and confirmation of accuracy from the source of a personal communication. This permission and confirmation must be submitted when the article is accepted for publication. Authors should verify references against the original documents and are responsible for checking that none of the references cite retracted articles except in the context of referring to the retraction. For articles published in journals indexed in MEDLINE, the ICMJE considers PubMed the authoritative source for information about retractions. Authors can identify retracted articles in MEDLINE by using the following search term, where pt in square brackets stands for publication type: Retracted publication [pt] in PubMed.

8.6.2 Reference style and format:

References should be formatted in accordance with the National Library of Medicine, which includes details for all journal articles, group authorship, electronic-only publications, books, retracted articles etc. List all authors when there are 6 or fewer. When there are 7 or more authors, list only the first 6 and add "et al." Do not use "ibid." or "op. cit." References should be numbered consecutively in the order in which they are first mentioned in the text. Identify references in text, tables and legends by Arabic numerals in square brackets without superscript. References cited only in tables or figure legends should be numbered in accordance with the sequence established by the first identification in the text of the particular table or figure. The titles of journals should be abbreviated according to the style used in Index Medicus available through the National Library of Medicine.

An example of appropriate referencing is:

Southern D, McLaren L, Hawe P, Knudtson ML, Ghali WA. Individual-level and neighborhood-level income measures: agreement and association with outcomes in a cardiac disease cohort. Med Care. 2004;43(11):1116–1122.

Appendix material should not have separate reference sections. References that appear in both the text and the appendix should be numbered as they appear in the text. Any references that appear only in the appendix should be added consecutively to the end of the text reference list.

8.7 Tables:

Tables capture information concisely and display it efficiently; they also provide information at any desired level of detail and precision. Including data in tables rather than text frequently makes it possible to reduce the length of the text. Number tables consecutively in the order of their first citation in the text and supply a brief title for each. Give each column a short or abbreviated heading. Authors should place explanatory matter in footnotes, not in the heading. Explain in footnotes all non-standard abbreviations. For footnotes use the following symbols, in sequence: *,†,‡,§,||,¶,**,††,‡‡ Do not superscript these symbols. Identify statistical measures of variations, such as standard deviation and standard error of the mean. Be sure that each table is cited in the text. If you use data from another published or unpublished source, obtain permission and acknowledge them fully. Additional tables containing extensive backup data can be added as an electronic link in the text. Submit these tables for consideration with the paper so that they will be available to the peer reviewers.

8.8. Illustrations, figures, multimedia files (See 7.6 Figures and tables)

8.9 Figures:

Letters, numbers and symbols on Figures should be clear and consistent throughout, and of sufficient size that they remain legible. Figures should be made as self-explanatory as possible, since many will be used directly in electronic presentations. Titles and detailed explanations belong in the legends, not on the illustrations themselves. Figures should be numbered consecutively according to the order in which they have been first cited in the text. If a figure has been published, acknowledge the original source and submit written permission from the copyright holder to reproduce the material. Permission is required irrespective of authorship or publisher except for documents in the public domain. Photomicrographs should have internal scale markers. Symbols, arrows or letters used in photomicrographs should contrast with the background. Explain the internal scale and identify the method of staining in photomicrographs. If photographs of people are used, either the subjects must not be identifiable or their pictures must be accompanied by written permission to use and publish the photograph. We require colour negatives, positive transparencies or colour prints for illustrations in colour. Accompanying drawings marked to indicate the region to be reproduced might be useful to the editor. When symbols, arrows, numbers or letters are used to identify parts of the illustrations, identify and explain each one clearly in the legend.

9. Units of measurement

Measurements of length, height, weight, and volume should be reported in metric units (metre, kilogram, or litre) or their decimal multiples. Temperatures should be in degrees Celsius. Blood pressures should be in millimetres of mercury. The Journal uses the SI system of units and the recommended international non-proprietary name (rINN) for drug names. Drug concentrations may be reported in either SI or mass units, but the alternative should be provided in parentheses where appropriate.

10. Abbreviations and symbols

Use only standard abbreviations; the use of non-standard abbreviations can be extremely confusing to readers. Avoid abbreviations in the title. The full term for which an abbreviation stands should precede its first use in the text unless it is a standard unit of measurement.

11. Cover picture

We encourage authors to help identify an appropriate image to publish with their article on the journal homepage. To be consistent with Open Medicine's copyright policies these images need to use a Creative Commons licence. We have included links to two sites with search instructions to help authors locate appropriate images.

11.1 Yotophoto ( Simply enter your search term.

11.2 Flickr ( Click "search" (with an empty search box), then "advanced search." At the bottom, select "Only select within Creative Commons-licensed photos," and then "Find content to modify, adapt, or build upon.” Enter your search criteria. 


Submission Preparation Checklist

As part of the submission process, authors are required to check off their submission's compliance with all of the following items, and submissions may be returned to authors that do not adhere to these guidelines.

  1. Do you agree to place this work under the  Creative Commons licence agreement used by this journal? (Co-authors are required to agree to this statement prior to final acceptance of a paper.)

  2. Do you have a approval from the relevant institutional review board or ethics committee for the research reported in the manuscript?
  3. Have all co-authors and their affiliations been included on the title page of the submission according to instructions in Section 7.2 of the Author Guidelines, along with their e-mail addresses?
  4. Is there a contributor statement that clearly describes how all of the co-authors fulfil all 4 criteria for authorship as described in Section 3, Criteria for Authorship?
  5. If a professional medical writer contributed to the article, has that contribution been appropriately disclosed as described in Section 3.2, Professional medical writers?
  6. Have you included a statement indicating who funded the study, and the role of the funding agency in conducting the study and in preparing the manuscript? 
  7. Have you declared relevant competing interests? (Co-authors are required to declare competing interests prior to final acceptance of a paper.)
  8. Does the guarantor take responsibility for the appropriateness and accuracy of the manuscript's reference list? (See Section 7.3, Author Guidelines)
  9. Have you obtained permission (written or e-mailed) to print the names of those in the Acknowledgements section whose contribution goes beyond administrative assistance?
  10. By submitting an article to Open Medicine, you accept that a publication fee of C$2500 for research and review articles and C$1200 for commentary and analysis articles will be charged if your article is accepted for publication. Those who are unable to pay the publication charge in full or in part will need to provide an explanation for this upon acceptance of their article.

Copyright Notice

Open Medicine is Open Access

Open Medicine applies the Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike Licence to works we publish, because we believe that there should be no financial barriers to access to information that can benefit medical practice. We also believe that authors should retain copyright to the article they have worked so hard to produce.

This Creative Commons licence means that anyone is able to freely copy, distribute, transmit or adapt the work we publish under the following conditions:

  • Adapted or derivative works (works that alter, transform or build upon the original work) must be distributed under the same or similar licence to this one.
  • All derivative or non-derivative work must be attributed to the author and to Open Medicine as specified by the author or Open Medicine, but not in any way that suggests that the author or Open Medicine endorses the work 
All of these conditions can be waived with permission from the copyright holder. These conditions do not negate or supersede fair use laws in any country.

If you reuse or distribute your work, you must make clear to others the licence terms of the work.

For more information, please see our


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The names and e-mail addresses entered on the Open Medicine site will be used exclusively for the stated purposes of the Journal and will not be made available for any other purpose or to any other party.



Publication Charge

This journal charges the following author fees.

Open Medicine will levy a publication charge for articles accepted on or after March 1, 2010. The fee is C$1200 for research and review articles and C$300 for commentary and analysis articles that meet our author guidelines in format and word count. The charge covers most of the copyediting costs as well as the production and layout costs required to ensure the article meets National Library of Medicine standards; the remaining costs are met by our editorial team of volunteers. Since publication charges apply only after an article is accepted, the fees do not influence our editorial decisions.

Partial or complete fee waivers are available to authors with little or no means to pay. Authors requiring a partial or complete fee waiver must provide an explanation for this when their article is accepted.

ISSN 1911-2092